EDCI Robertsunyq

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Assignment #4 : Intro to Sleep: The understanding of sleep and how to improve better sleep habits

Link to Dedicated Website —> https://edci337pod2.opened.ca/

Learning outcomes

By the end of the material, the learner should be able to: 

  • Understand the meaning of sleep 
  • Gain a better understanding of sleeping habits/hygiene
  • Improve sleep routine
  • Know the tools available to help sleeping schedule and improve sleep

Diagnostic Assessment – click here

  • This multimedia object allows the teacher to assess the learner’s current situation. The learner can understand where the learner is struggling and where they do not need any extra attention. This also allows the learner to anticipate what is to be expected out of the lesson and what they should be focusing on. 

Infographic: here

  • The infographic’s purpose was to provide the learner with a limited capacity of information. Humans can only process a limited amount of information and the infographic provides it in a digestible amount. The intrinsic load is also taken into consideration. The information is provided in chucks to allow for adequate processing. 

What media object material was used

Multimedia learning provides many opportunities to gain knowledge throughout this learning content. Quizzes, infographics, PowerPoints were just some of the multimedia designs created in this learning content. The way the material is presented and laid out plays a crucial role in how the learner absorbs it. The multimedia provided have explanations of their use. 

How is are media objects created

The learning has many different opportunities to view and engage with the given material. By providing different formats of multimedia objects, the learner can encounter many different ways to understand the information. Not only can the learner absorb the information, but they are also given many opportunities to apply it. The multimedia objects are created around the idea of incorporating multimedia learning. 

Why does the media object allow for learning

The material presented has been arranged in a format that is digestible from a simple form. It is broken down in a way that does not overwhelm the learning but rather intrigues them to learn more. As mentioned previously, the media objects are created around the idea of multimedia learning, and this ensures the best learning theories are applied. We focused on facilitation understanding, not knowing facts. By applying the backward design process, we were able to identify the goal, determine the evidence required for students to learn, and plan for learning experiences (activities). 

Summative assessment – Click here 

  • Assessment of how efficiently sleep hygiene material was taught and how well the students retained the information presented. A short 10 question quiz to check their understanding of the materials. Student’s are able to retake the quiz as many times as needed until they receive a passing completion mark of 100%. 
  • The quiz is not only an assessment, it can be viewed as a game. Instead of assigning plain questions for learners, this provides an easy, relaxing environment for students.  The questions selected are reasonable and easy to understand. 
  • The quiz is an example of gamification, which involves using game-based elements such as point-scoring. Gamified quizzes can motivate students to participate in class, and it can also stimulate a more competitive environment in the classroom. Learners are encouraged to talk about the quiz with their peers and make reflections of improvements they can make for the next time.

Hands-on activity 

The goal of the hands-on activity was to allow the learner to develop their own personal experiences with the multimedia objects. Learners can interact with the material and content. These resources are applicable tools that can assist learners in obtaining the end goal of a more effective sleep regime and understanding the importance of sleep. 

Make the Most out of Your Sleep

  • This PowerPoint was developed with a variety of multimedia principles in mind. Cognitive load theory is a big component of effective PowerPoint presentations. Each slide accompanied this theory by only including one main idea and not including more than six objects on each. Too much slide information is a very ineffective way to transfer knowledge through a PowerPoint as viewers lose interest. Signalling principles were another component kept in mind for this presentation. Text size differentiating and bolding the main point of each slide allows for the viewer’s attention to naturally move through the information on each slide. This is important for ensuring that the viewer takes in the main point of each slide and then supporting information. A step-by-step list approach was also effective for breaking the topic down into smaller sections that can be easily understood.


Felson, S. (2020, October 16). Stages of sleep: Rem and Non-REM Sleep cycles. WebMD. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from https://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-101. 

Fry, A. (2020, September 11). Why do we need sleep? Sleep Foundation. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/why-do-we-need-sleep. 

Suni, E. (2021, March 10). How much sleep do we really need? Sleep Foundation. Retrieved November 23, 2021, from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need#:~:text=National%20Sleep%20Foundation%20guidelines1,to%208%20hours%20per%20night

Watson, S., & Cherney, K. (2020, May 15). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body. Healthline. Retrieved November 30, 2021, from https://www.healthline.com/health/sleep-deprivation/effects-on-body

What is sleep & why is it important for health? American Sleep Association. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2021, from https://www.sleepassociation.org/about-sleep/what-is-sleep/. 

Feedback #9

Hi! This is a very interesting post as you make a comparison between summative assessment and formative assessment. I agree with you that formative assessments are low-stakes and students feel relaxing when being assessed this way. For teachers, they tend to use summative assessments more as they implement lots of midterms and exams. I think both assessments are crucial to our learning, and I think teachers should trained with knowledge of applying both assessments appropriately. Nice post!

Blog #9

In this blog I want to compare formative assessment and summative assessment and show some of my thoughts.

The purpose of formative assessment is to monitor student learning and provide ongoing feedback to students. If designed appropriately, it helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses. Formative assessments have low stakes and usually carry no grade, which in some instances may discourage the students from doing the task or fully engaging with it. Some of the strategies of formative assessment are exit card, in class discussions, open-ended questions, and peer assessments.

On the other hand, the goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. Summative assessments often have high stakes and are treated by students as the priority over formative assessments. Examples of summative assessment are midterm exams, chapter tests, etc. I think most students, especially students in higher level education, will take summative assessment more seriously because of the grade that come with it. Mostly, formative assessment is used to support summative assessment for all level of education. Most of the final exams are summative assessment too. I. think it’s crucial to motivate students to interact in formative assessment because it is also a part of learning.


Guo, W. Y., & Yan, Z. (2019). Formative and summative assessment in Hong Kong primary schools: students’ attitudes matter. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 26(6), 675–699. https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2019.1571993

Feedback #8

Hi Arezou! I found your post is very interesting to read. Yes, we have all experienced summative assessment in university and we are very familiar about it. I agree with you that summative assessments such as final exams that are worth a lot of your grade can make students feel anxious. It is still a predominant way of assessment in university. However, students in university tend to show less interest in formative assessment such as peer meetings that count 0% of your grade. Nice post overall!

Blog #8

In this blog I want to talk about AR and share some of my personal thoughts on it.

AR in the classroom introduces a new education approach through an updated methodology and curricula. With this technology, children can acquire new knowledge through experiencing and screen touching. Incorporating AR in content for teachers in just about any subject like math and chemistry, not only learning but also teaching can be faster, more fun and more efficient for learners.

AR technologies offer benefits in education. It can improve user interaction because it just makes things more interesting. It promotes a learner’s increased involvement because he/she is able. To access content using a mobile device. AR in education can attract learners to view and access their coursework because of the enriched experience.

However, from a personal perspective, I think AR is way too advanced in teaching. If AR is advanced enough, the teachers’ role might be taken by AR and therefore ruin the learning experience. If we can go on a field trip, why do we use AR instead? I think AR can serve as an option in case anything uncontrollable happens, such as the pandemic.

Feedback #7

Hi Rianne! I like how you apply Horndike’s connectionism theory to active learning principles. In connectionism theory, connections are important to understand new material. I also agree that augmented reality can help student make connections. By showing students pictures and videos, can help students make those connections in augmented reality. Furthermore, I think under pandemic, AR will become more useful because it makes the access to connections easier for learners.

Blog #7

In this week’s post, I want to talk about some benefits of gamified quizzes.

According to this article from the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, gamification means to incorporate design elements of games—specifically from video games—to boost student engagement. Because of the popularity of video games, many children are likely to respond to such academic activities with more enthusiasm than they might with any other activity.

  • Enhance the “testing effect”

The “testing effect” refers to the effect that frequent quizzing has on the learning process. Each time a child takes a quiz, they must perform a complex cognitive process of recalling facts and concepts they have learned. Because kids are consistently and repeatedly recalling learned information, they are able to better remember those skills. Gamified quizzes can assist in improving learning because it requires children to recall information more often, leading to better learning outcomes.

  • Interactive video quizzes improve engagement and lead to more quizzes

Besides motivating students to participate in class, interactive e-quizzes can also stimulate a more competitive environment in the classroom. When kids compete against one another to earn the most points or to “win”, this can further increase motivation to do well and learn more. Furthermore, the fact that students love competition and playing games could lead to more activities that utilize these types of quizzes.


Al-Azawi, R., Al-Faliti, F., & Al-Blushi, M. (2016). Educational Gamification Vs. Game Based Learning: Comparative Study. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 131–136. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijimt.2016.7.4.659

Assignment 3: Core Multimedia Skills

For this multimedia improvement project, I selected a PowerPoint presentation of my own as the multimedia object. I developed this PowerPoint presentation in a psychology course this semester. After learning the knowledge of multimedia learning principles throughout this class, I noticed some mistakes that I made in my slides. I revised my slides according to the theories I learned, and I have a clear idea of how my mistakes affect the overall flow of my presentation.

On the first slide of my PowerPoint presentation, I firstly modified the font of my slide because the font that I selected (Garamond) is stiff and unattractive for the audience to read. Then I deleted the article title on the bottom left, as it violated the Cognitive Load Theory. The Cognitive Load Theory suggests that during learning, information should be held in working memory. Although I don’t have heavy texts on my first slide anyways, I think it is important to keep my slide straight and clear, especially on the first slide which starts things off. I also should pay attention to the Coherence Principle because I put extraneous information in the slide.

I made several changes to the second slide. I reorganized objects in the slide and change the font again, just to make it easier for the readers. I also insert an image that relates to the information in the slide, which reflects what I learned from the Modality Principle. As the Modality Principle suggests, we learn best from visuals and spoken words. I think with the image in the slide, readers will have a clearer idea of what message I am trying to tell in the slide, and they will have a better understanding of the information. Moreover, adding an image in a slide triggers the Multimedia Principle. It suggests that humans learn best from words and pictures than just words alone. I think words and images are a cool combination and with good use of them, it is a very effective way for presentation slides.

For the third slide, I demonstrate what I learned from the Signaling Principle. The Signaling Principle essentially means that we learn best when we are shown exactly what to pay attention to on the screen. Therefore, I highlighted the key terms in each text which the readers should pay attention to.

On my fifth slide, I added a question for the audience which I think is corresponds to the Pre-Training principle. It suggests that people learn more efficiently if they already know some of the basics. In the slide, I assume the audience has learned some knowledge from previous slides, therefore, instead of straightly giving the audience the information, I raised a quick question that can make some engagement and help with their learning.

All the significant changes are noted above. I think my PowerPoint slides look way better than before. The principles and theories I learned in this course helped me improve my presentation skills and make me feel more confident in performing a presentation.

Here are how my PowerPoint look before and after



Feedback #6

Hi Julia! I like your blog about game-based learning. Like you, I also enjoy participate in Kahoot quizzes in the classrooms in high school. I think by making the learning more competitive and interesting, students will have more motivation and they are likely to interact with their peers more. Also, I think it’s also important for teachers to have the class under control when doing those game-based activities.

Blog #6

In this week’s post, I want to explore the benefits of videos to learning. I also want to point out some disadvantages of videos to learning as well.

The influence of digital videos on our everyday culture is undeniable. Online video sharing sites such as YouTube is very popular and people are willing to use them as a source of learning. Students today are using educational videos as at tool for learning everything: from basic skills like fixing a broken electronic to pleasing your mates. Studies have shown that the use of short video clips allows for more efficient processing and memory recall. The visual and auditory nature of videos appeals to a wide audience and allows each learner to process information in their own pace. Therefore, some people consider videos as good teachers.

However, there are some disadvantage of videos to learning as well. One of the cons of video in education is that it requires a technology. For this simple reason, video learning is out of reach of many people around the world, especially the poor. Another big drawback to learning through video is that is promotes individualism, which can make learning hard. When you are watching a video, you can do it by yourself and you can watch it on your own pace. You don’t need to make interactions with other people when your learning is watching videos.


Noetel, M., Griffith, S., Delaney, O., Sanders, T., Parker, P., del Pozo Cruz, B., & Lonsdale, C. (2021). Video Improves Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Review. Review of Educational Research, 91(2), 204–236. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654321990713

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